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铝门窗行业未来发展十大趋势解析

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2016年第一季度廊坊木家具出口达4851.5万美元 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

深圳楼市调控再出重手 房价上涨预期改变

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Inside larger technology companies, female employees will be hoping for signs of change in pay and promotions — but will also be on guard, as a men’s rights backlash brews in some corners of Silicon Valley.
A segment of Peking Opera from “Take Over The Weihu Mountain” (Yu Kuizhi and a student from Confucius Institute)
But I don't think you can say that to us anymore. Are we even on your list of priorities? My father always says "You are what you do, not what you say." 但我不能再相信这样的话了,孩子们还是你们的优选名单吗?我爸爸总是说:“听其言,观其行,是认识一个人最好的方法”。
Ma Nan补充报道
每个句子后面有5个数字,选择最能反映你的感受的数字。
加快培育壮大新兴产业。
vt. 建议,推荐,劝告

temporary
[.k?ntri'bju:n]
Murietta belonged to a gang known as the Five Joaquins, who were notorious bandits during the height of the California Gold Rush. While Murietta's criminal activity likely did not have any political undertones, he nonetheless became a symbol of Mexican resistance as American settlers ventured to California. Unfortunately for him, this pushed the government to put a bounty on his head, leading to his murder and beheading. Luckily, Banderas's character didn't fall to the same fate.
Alice Schwarzer, who has battled for women’s rights for years, is stunned that “an old-school sexist” like Donald J. Trump could win the United States presidency.
2. “闪光的密切:纳撒尼尔·多斯基与杰罗姆·希勒的电影”(Luminous Intimacy: The Cinema of Nathaniel Dorsky and Jerome Hiler)。赞美纽约电影节,感谢纽约电影节,举办了这样一次令人赞叹的双人回顾影展。

Footnotes

  • 链家60亿融资引百度腾讯入主 估值缩水现隐忧
  • 7. 建立声誉。

A string of other Victoria's Secret models have also been banned from the country including Julia Belyakova, Kate Grigorieva and Irina Sharipova - all from Russia - and Ukraine's Dasha Khylstun.
In 2014, the actress Tilda Swinton wore false teeth in four movies: “The Zero Theorem,” “The Grand Budapest Hotel,” “Only Lovers Left Alive” and “Snowpiercer,” a film directed by Bong Joon-ho. In this thriller, Ms. Swinton plays the cruel and calculating Minister Mason, distinguished by a giant pair of glasses and a mouthful of bulky, misshapen choppers.
Comedy Series: “Veep” (HBO)
很多人会这么想:“只要我努力工作,我总会被人注意到的。” 但是这通常不对。如果你想升职,那么当一些责任分到你头上,让你大施拳脚,你一定要让你的上级,你上级的上级知道你到底为公司贡献了什么。
“中国是澳大利亚最有价值的旅游市场,到2020年其价值可能超过130亿美元。”
“Yao represents the new wave of wealth creation by financial investments in China,” said Rupert Hoogewerf, who compiles the annual list.

部分城市二度出手 循序渐进纠正“楼市冲动”

References

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