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重庆首例农民工住房公积金缴存试点调查

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 业界普遍看衰:家居卖场真的走不动了吗? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

业内报告称:中国一二线城市住宅地价明显上涨

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

当然,影片中最惊人的一幕是外星人遇到一个涉世不深,外表因为多发性神经纤维瘤而丑陋的年轻男子,由亚当·皮尔森扮演。格雷泽带来的这一幕是全然无畏而且毫无感情波动的,或许这是从大卫·林奇的《象人》这部影片的主题变化而来。外星人并不会在本质上区分这位年轻男子的长相,但是她与这位男子相遇——两个外星人的遭遇?——触发了危机,使得她成为了猎物,而不是猎人。
But national and racial identity were often conflated for the white majority. That identity felt to many white people like one of the most important pillars holding up their world — and now it seems under threat.
You're right to be paranoid. The company is always watching you, and there's a record of everything you do: every phone call, every text, every tweet and instant message. At most companies, they save that data forever.
Usain Bolt was the most searched-for non-UK Olympian.
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中国社科院表示,在中国的工业及相关领域中,农民工们提供了50%的劳动力。然而由于户籍规定,他们却无法享受到与城市居民同等的权利。
2002年,电视剧《绝望主妇》的制片人马克·切利正在家和他母亲看着电视。那天(以及前几天)的头条新闻是安德烈·耶茨案件审判。她因在浴缸里溺死自己的5个孩子而受审。马克转身问他母亲:"你能想象一个女人究竟是多么绝望才会杀了亲生孩子?"

Three leading energy agencies recently said production from outside the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries would increase this year, much of it from U.S. shale. Added to that is the possible return to market of millions of Middle East barrels as Iran, Iraq and Libya potentially ramp up production. All of that is set to press on prices.
The new data released yesterday represent the first snapshot of global trade for 2015. But the figures also come amid growing concerns that 2016 is already shaping up to be more fraught with dangers for the global economy than previously expected.
《为奴十二年》导演史蒂夫?麦奎因(Steve McQueen)在登台领奖时说:我有点吓到了。然后他微微耸肩,引用片中福音歌曲的歌词,说了句“翻涌吧,约旦河,翻涌吧”("Roll, Jordan, roll")。
答:写轻小说的时候,我大部分时候都是独自创作。但是写动画的话,就有会导演,有工作人员,他们会对我的作品提出观点。关于分镜往往会有好几次修订。有趣的是那些回馈回来的东西。这是工作中非常有趣的一部分。
5、毕福剑违纪

Footnotes

  • 20套房源仅3套为真:坑起租客来都不带眨眼的?
  • 大隅在自噬作用上的研究成果,为帕金森病、糖尿病等常见疾病的治疗带来了一线希望。

为编制英国《金融时报》2017年金融硕士课程排行榜而收集的数据显示,在金融领域工作的毕业生当中,性别多样化程度日益上升。
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n. 繁荣,兴旺
Sebastian Payne
本文列举了16种我本人几乎每天都会使用的应用软件,我还将在本文中讨论为什么你也应该使用它们。
农林牧渔和服务业是应届毕业生签约行业中薪资水平较低的行业,月薪分别为3347元和3115元。

双重高压 夹江陶企授信额度最高超4千万

References

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