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家具销售缺乏监管到处是坑 消费者“步步惊心”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2015年上半年我国涂料产量微增 中西部崛起明显 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

取消限购首日 南京楼市并未出现明显升温迹象

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Perhaps my favorite profile this year was Kiki Zhao’s stirring depiction of the remarkable Yu Xiuhua, now one of China’s most read poets, a woman with cerebral palsy who lived most of her 41 years on a farm, writing at a low table. She never finished high school, and says she “could write before she could read.” Now, she is invited to places like Stanford University and fends off comparisons to Emily Dickinson.
对投资者而言,今年对行业的准确判断还只是个小问题,因为除了美股,今年全球的投资好选择不多。
n. 飞行,航班
纽约州莱维敦的五年级学生张天羽在10万名参赛者中脱颖而出,赢得了本年度谷歌国际少年绘画大赛冠军。这次比赛的主题是“画一个能使世界变得更好的东西”。
5.Branding: 16.4 percent increase
1月份中国居民消费价格指数(CPI)出现上涨,在本月金融市场动荡为主的背景下,该消息对于这个世界第二大经济体来说是个令人鼓舞的迹象。
The report didn't comment on potential factors influencing the numbers, but many – including members of the opposing political party – are laying the blame squarely at the feet of government cost-cutting.

马自达获得了最佳轿车品牌的称号。汽车媒体一直很青睐马自达的表现,而如今的马自达汽车都在精致的内部设置和强大的驱动力上赢得了积极的反馈。上图的2016马自达第三代,在美国新闻小巧车排名中摘得桂冠,它的精准操控,强大加速度和高端室内布局,赢得了大多数汽车评论家称赞。
《三块广告牌》是一部黑色喜剧电影,由奥斯卡得主马丁?麦克唐纳执导。
单词extravagant 联想记忆:
Experts say that 2016 was a remarkable year for the Chinese film industry as it realized growth while facing multiple challenges including the rapid development of the internet, the increasingly sophisticated tastes of Chinese audiences, and the economic downturn in the country.
他的投篮许多次都是只打中篮筐的前沿儿。而一些三分投篮甚至投出了三不沾。许多本应是扣篮的球最终他只选择了上篮,当然了,这是相比在若干年前没有任何伤病的他而言的。而最残酷的是,其中一次投篮,科比甚至把球嵌在了篮筐与篮板之间。最终还是对方的球员把球拿了下来。

Footnotes

  • 淡季不淡 广州亚运城板块成楼市租赁热门
  • We will deepen rural reform.

Alfonso Cuaron and his colleagues, most notably the cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki, the production designer Andy Nicholson and the filmmaker's co-writer, Jonas Cuaron, have made a motion picture that expands the way motion pictures will be made. Readers with an interest in technology can get a sense of their extraordinary achievements from last month's cover story of American Cinematographer, which is available online. But the emotional essence of the film is already known to anyone who has seen it, and has been swept away by it-into the outer space of silence and menace, into an inner space of deep delight.
简而言之,C型人格的人是完美主义者, 始终如一,永远不会违反规则。 与A型人格的人不同的是,C型人会花时间处理细节,经常反复检查工作是否准确。他们往往是深思熟虑的人,喜欢了解自己工作和生活的每一个细节。
The United States ranks No. 7 overall. The country with the largest economy in the world is also considered the most powerful. It ranks No. 3 in Entrepreneurship and No. 3 in Cultural Influence, as well.
Former Disney star-turned-wild child singer Miley Cyrus followed as the number two 'celeb gone good', according to the website. Father-to-be Channing Tatum came in third.
n. 部分,份,命运,分担的责任
'If you read Trigger Mortis, you’ll see actually there is a little twist to the tale in that particular story which I think sort of pays him off for his slightly patronising attitude.'

不必为土地出让金下降担忧

References

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